types of forces acting on retaining wall

  • cantilever type structures, and counterfort type structures. walls might be constructed from materials such as fieldstone, reinforced concrete, gabions, reinforced earth, steel and timber. Each of these walls must be designed to resist the external forces applied to the wall from earth pressure, surcharge load, water, earthquake etc. Prior to completing any retaining wall design, it is first necessary to calculate the forces acting on the wall. retaining wall to Support a Fill. retaining wall to& ...


  • Loads and forces acting on retaining. wall There are various types of loads and forces acting on retaining wall, which are: 1. Lateral earth pressure. 2. Surcharge loads. 3. Axial loads. 4. Wind on projecting stem. 5. Impact forces. 6. Seismic earth pressure. 7. Seismic wall self-weight forces. retaining wall design could include any or all of loads and forces which are explained in the following sections: 1. Lateral Earth Pressure acting on retaining wall The main purpose of retaining& ...


  • This type of distribution was first suggested by Terzaghi (1943) on the basis of empirical data collected on the Berlin Subway .... The build-up of pore water behind a retaining wall can roughly double the active force on such a structure from that .... This reduction in shear strength will cause an increase in the lateral earth pressure in excess of the At-Rest earth pressures. This type of deformation can be particularly detrimental in situations where a sloping backfill lies behind the wall. In.


  • This type of soil strengthening, often also used without an outside wall, consists of wire mesh "boxes", which are filled with roughly cut stone or other material. The mesh cages reduce some internal movement and forces, and also reduce erosive forces. Gabion walls are free-draining retaining structures and as such are often built in locations where ground water is present. However, management and control of the ground water in and around all retaining walls is important.


  • types of retaining walls: Gravity retaining walls Semi-Gravity retaining walls Cantilever retaining walls Counter fort retaining walls; 4. Cantilever retaining wall: stem H2 H1 H toe heel y shear key b; 5. forces acting on the retaining wall: Lateral forces: Earth pressure due to backfill and surcharge. Vertical forces: acting downwards: Self weight of the retaining wall ; Weight of soil above heel slab. acting upwards: Force due to soil pressure underneath the& ...


  • states of this type may be neglected, however, because not much is known about the variability of the coefficient of earth pressure at rest and because no major damage was experienced in the past if serviceability limit states were examined against permanently acting earth pressure and hydraulic pressure. (3) Earth pressure that acts permanently on retaining walls. It is generally said that although earth pressure acting on ordinary retaining walls varies depending on the soil behind& ...


  • 29 Sep 1989 ... type of alternate retaining wall is shown in Figure 2-1. Counterfort and buttressed reinforced concrete walls are less commonly used and are not spe- cifically discussed in this manual. Much of the conceptual information and the information in Chapters 3 and 9 is applicable to all types of walls. 2-2. Gravity Concrete wall. A gravity wall (Figure 2-1) consists of mass concrete, generally without reinforcement. It is proportioned so that the resultant of the forces acting on& ...


  • seismic coefficient method and is different from the actual earth pressure generated during an earthquake caused ..... with buoyancy, the vertical force acting on the soil is the soil's under-water weight. Therefore, the resultant force on the soil under the water level during an earthquake would be different from that in the air. When calculating earth pressure during an ... 2) Okabe, S.: General Theory on Earth Pressure and Seismic Stability of retaining wall and Dam, Journal of JSCE Vol.


  • There are numerous kinds of loads and forces that acting on retaining wall. They are as follows: 1. Lateral earth pressure, 2. Surcharge loads, 3. Axial loads, 4. Wind on projecting stem, 5. Impact forces, 6. Seismic earth pressure, 7. Seismic wall self-weight forces. 1. Lateral Earth Pressure acting on retaining wall: The key reason that lies behind the retaining wall construction is to preserve soil as soil lateral earth pressure is the chief concern in the design. The theory that is mostly& ...


  • wallS. 26.6 GENERAL DESIGN ConSIDERATIonS. 27.1 retaining wallS WITH METALLIC STRIP. REINFORCEMENT. Calculation of Active Horizontal and vertical Pressure. Tie Force. Factor of Safety Against Tie Failure ... semigravity walls (figure 7.1b). Cantilever retaining walls (figure 7.1c) are made of reinforced concrete that consists of a thin stem and a base slab. This type of wall is economical to a height of about 25 ft (8 m). Counterfort retaining walls (figure 7.1d)& ...


  • retaining walls A wall designed with the purpose of keeping a level difference of the soil on its both sides is called a retaining wall. These supporting elements can be considered either rigid or flexible. The rigid type are mainly ... There are a number of forces that act on the retaining wall. Some are relatively constant while others intensity may vary due to factors such as weather. These forces are: 1) Weight of the wall. This force acts on the gravity centroid of the& ...


  • Module 6 : Design of retaining Structures. Lecture 26 : Introduction [ Section 26.2 : Different types of retaining Structures ]. Objectives. In this section you will learn the following. Gravity walls. Semi Gravity retaining wall. Flexible walls. Special type of retaining walls .... once the forces acting on the wall have been determined, the Stability is checked using the procedure discussed in the proceeding section. For convenience, the section of the retaining wall is divided in to rectangles& ...


  • act simultaneously. According to the Turkish Specifications for structures to be Built in. Disaster Areas (1975), the angle of shear strength shall be decreased by: 6 in 1 st and 2 nd degree earthquake zones. 4 in 3 rd and 4 th degree earthquake zones. In the calculation of earth pressure acting on retaining walls and sheet-pile walls. 6c. Earthquake forces on Bridges: The type of foundation soil must be taken into consideration in the evaluation of the design criteria of bridge piers and& ...


  • Enter the soil density on the toe side, which may be different than the heel side. When surcharges are applied over the soil on the toe side, the surcharge is transformed to equivalent uniform lateral loads acting on the wall by the ratio force = (Surcharge/ Density)*Lateral Load. Input this value in lbs. per cubic foot. Typical values are 110 pcf to 120 pcf. Lateral Pressure Method. Here you can choose between E.F.P. (Equivalent Fluid Pressure), Rankine formula or Coulomb formula.


  • types of retaining wallS Gandhinagar Institute of Technology : Department of Civil Engineering 4 Gravity retaining walls. Cantilever retaining walls. Counterfort retaining walls. Buttress wall. Bridge abutment. Box culvert. 5. Gandhinagar ... forces acting on retaining wall Lateral earth pressure Self weight of retaining wall Weight of soil above the base slab Surcharge, i.e. forces due to loads on earth surface. Soil reaction below base slab& ...


  • retaining wallS. Slide No. 15. ENCE 454 Assakkaf. Lateral forces on retaining walls. ▫ The Magnitude and Direction of Pressure. The magnitude and direction of the pressure as well as the pressure distribution exerted by a soil backfill upon a wall are highly indeterminate, due to many variables. These variables include, but are not limited to,. the type of backfill used,. The drainage of the backfill material,. The level of the water table,. The slope of the backfill material,.