seismic design of gravity retaining walls

  • office of Navy Technology and Department of the Army. THE seismic design. of WATERFRONT retaining. "STRUCTURES. JUN 11193 U'. 4<. P IWI93-13063. ABSTRACT. This technical report deals with the soil mechanics aspects of the design of waterfront retaining structures built to withstand the effects of earthquake loadings. It addresses the stability and movement of gravity retaining walls and anchored sheet pile walls and the dynamic forces against the walls of drydocks.


  • Keywords: retaining Wall, displacement, performance based design,. INTRODUCTION. Regulatory codes and published design guides for seismic design of gravity retaining walls are typically based on simple limit equilibrium (LE) design philosophy. They typically consider the seismic load as an additional pseudo-static (PS) earth pressure. There are a number of shortcomings with this simplified design approach, but its simplicity has a number of perceived benefits. Advanced.


  • accelerations have dramatically increased. In this study, the developments of the seismic provisions pertaining to seismological, geotechnical and structural are thoroughly evaluated. By pursuing a reasonable rationale, the developments introduced for the structural design are applied to the seismic design of gravity retaining walls. In light of the previous application, a minimum factor of overstrength of 1.55 for a gravity retaining wall is obtained. Other factors, which increase the system& ...


  • 5 seismic design PARAMETERS. 15. 5.1 design horizontal acceleration. 16. 5.2 Topographic amplification factor. 16. 5.3 Wall displacement factor. 17. 6 design of NEW retaining STRUCTURES. 18. 6.1 General requirements. 18. 6.2 Serviceability limit state. 18. 6.3 Ultimate limit state. 19. 6.4 Resistance factors. 20. 6.5 gravity load case. 20. 6.6 Earthquake load case. 21. 6.6.1 Flexible walls. 21. 6.6.2 Stiff walls. 22. 6.6.3 Embedded walls. 22. 6.6.4 Tied-back and propped walls.


  • Port structures, such as caisson quay walls, rep- resent a particular type of gravity retaining wall in which the behaviour under seismic conditions is more complex compared to that of a wall with a dry backfill, depending on the combined effects of dy- namic soil pressure, wall inertia and dynamic water pressures acting on both sides of the wall. Signifi- cant efforts have been made during the past decades to develop rational methods and guidelines to ana- lyse and design waterfront& ...


  • seismic design of Gr... | The design of gravity retaining walls in an earthquake-prone environment is usually based upon static analysis using an equivalent seismic coefficient. This can be a suitable approach, provided that the seismic coefficient is determined from a rational analysis of actual dynamic...


  • Richards-Elms retaining wall design method. (WES). 20. ADSTIR ACT ( s ss reverse as. If necessary and fdeitfy by bl ock . . bor. --- -. The report discusses the seismic design of gravity walls retaining granular backfill without pore water. The general features of behavior are illustrated by field experiences, results from laboratory model tests and from theoretical analyses. Both the conventional method of design and the Richards-Elms method, based upon n1c analogy to a sliding block,& ...


  • In some cases, these deformations originated significant damages with disastrous physical and economic consequences. For gravity walls, the dynamic earth pressures acting on the wall can be evaluated by using the Mononobe-Okabe method, while Newmark rigid sliding block scheme is suitable to predict the displacements after the shaking, as demonstrated by several experimental tests. Instead, this simplified approach is not very useful for embedded retaining walls for various& ...


  • Wotring, Donald and Andersen, Glen, "Displacement-Based design Criteria for gravity retaining walls in Light of Recent ... Richards and Elms (1979) developed a design method for gravity retaining walls based on finite displacements, in ..... to reevaluate the state of practice in engineering design for the seismic analysis of structures. This brief analysis has indicated that more research is needed to predict the relative displacement of type gravity retaining walls under seismic.


  • The design of gravity retaining walls in an earthquake-prone environment is usually based upon static analysis using an equivalent seismic coefficient. This can be a suitable approach, provided that the seismic coefficient is determined from a rational analysis of actual dynamic behavior. The report discusses the seismic design of gravity walls retaining granular backfill without pore water. The general features of behavior are illustrated by field experiences, results from laboratory& ...


  • seismic design of gravity retaining walls. R.V. Whitman (l). Samson Liao (II). Presenting Author: R.V. Whitman. SUMMARY. Factors affecting the choice of a suitable safety factor for use with the Richards—Elms method are investigated: errors in the use of a sliding block to represent a retaining wall and associated backfill, near- randomness in time-histories of earthquake ground motion and uncertainty in strength parameters. A systematic approach for treating these.


  • Read chapter Chapter 7 - retaining walls: TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 611: seismic Analysis and design of Retaini...


  • seismic displacement of gravity walls had been studied using conventional static methods for controlled displacement design. In this study plain strain numerical analysis is performed using Plaxis dynamic program where prescribed displacement is applied at the bottom boundary of the soil to simulate the applied seismic load. Constrained absorbent side boundaries are introduced to prevent any wave reflection. The studied soil is chosen dense granular sand and modeled as& ...


  • Sliding wall: Richards and Elms (1979) suggested an approach to evaluating the permanent displacement experienced by a gravity wall that slips on its base because of momentarily-existing seismic forces. There is a considerable literature regarding this approach and the various approximations involved; e.g. Whitman and Liao (1984). Saturated Backfills. Westergaard (1933) provided a solution that gives the dynamic thrust against a vertical wall retaining an infinitely long reservoir of& ...


  • However, the decreasing range is negligibly small comparing with the decrease of active earth pressure. It is suggested that the effect of backfill cohesion on the permanent displacement should not be considered in the displacement-based seismic design of gravity retaining structures. KEYWORDS: gravity retaining wall, seismic permanent displacement, backfill cohesion, seismic earth pressure. 1. INTRODUCTION. Large permanent displacement of retaining walls has been observed& ...


  • 114. seismic design of gravity retaining walls. D. G. Elms * and R . Richards **. SYNOPSIS. Starting from the Mononobe-Okabe analysis, the seismic behaviour of gravity retaining walls is investigated. The importance of including wall inertia effects is demonstrated. The sensitivity of the results to changes in various parameters is explored:1 care must be taken in some ranges. For a moderately severe earthquake, it is shown that most walls will move, but that the movement& ...


  • This paper presents a model for evaluating the earthquake—induced permanent rotation and translation of a gravty retaining wall with dry and cohesionless backfill. The governing equations are derived from equilibrium and continuity conditions. Recommendations are made to esimate the amount of wall movement for a design earthquake that is characterizad by its peak acceleration and peak velocity. I NTROD UCTI ON. Since 1920's, the common practice in seismic design of gravity.


  • of retaining structures. The seismic design of retaining structures has been addressed in several previous state-of-the-art papers, notably seed and Whitman (1970) and Prakash. (1981). During this interval there have been: Additional model ... Steedman (1984). gravity wall sliding on sand; motions only. Nagel & Elms (1985) fixed base cantilever wall; bending moments in wall. Reinforced-earth walls. Yong (1985). Wall moving rigidly with base; reactions; pressures. Andersen et al.


  • This paper presents a seismic analysis of gravity retaining walls. A mathematical model was deriven ... arrive to an appropiate seismic coefficient for the design of a retaining wall, it is necessary to correlate ... Specific gravity = 2.82. Minimum void ratio - 0.57. Maximum void ratio - 1.01. Several drained lubricated ends triaxial tests were run at different initial relative densities. Figure 2 shows the angle of internal friction of the sand as a function of the initial relative density. For computing.